Germany was once the witch-burning capital of the world. Here’s why by Gwynn Guilford

Wax dolls being given to the devil.

In 1572, the killings began. That year, authorities in the tiny settlement of St Maximin, in present-day Germany, charged a woman named Eva with using witchcraft to murder a child. Eva confessed under torture; she, along with two women she implicated, were burned at the stake.

The pace of prosecution picked up from there. By the mid-1590s, the territory had burned 500 people as witches—an astonishing feat, for a place that only had 2,200 residents to begin with.

Why is it that early modern Europe had such a fervor for witch hunting? Between 1400 to 1782, when Switzerland tried and executed Europe’s last supposed witch, between 40,000 and 60,000 people were put to death for witchcraft, according to historical consensus. The epicenter of the witch hunts was Europe’s German-speaking heartland, an area that makes up Germany, Switzerland, and northeastern France.

Conventional wisdom has chalked the killings up to a case of bad weather. Across Europe, weather suddenly got wetter and colder—a phenomenon known as the Little Ice Age that pelted villages with freak frosts, floods, hailstorms, and plagues of mice and caterpillars. Witch hunts tended to correspond with ecological disasters and crop failures, along with the accompanying problems of famine, inflation, and disease. When the going got tough, witches made for a convenient scapegoat.

But a recent economic study (pdf), which will soon be published in the The Economic Journal of the Royal Economic Society, proposes a different explanation for the witch hunts—one that can help us understand the way fears spread, and take hold, today.

The economic hypothesis

This alternative theory comes down to market competitionbetween churches. In early modern Europe, Protestantism emerged as the first truly viable challenger to the Catholic church’s hold on the population. The study views the Catholic and Protestant churches as competing firms, each in the business of supplying a valuable service: Salvation.

As competition for religious market share heated up, churches expanded beyond the standard spiritual services and began focusing on salvation from devilry here on earth. Among both Catholics and Protestants, witch-hunting became a prime service for attracting and appeasing the masses by demonstrating their Satan-fighting prowess.

“Similar to how contemporary Republican and Democrat candidates focus campaign activity in political battlegrounds during elections to attract the loyalty of undecided voters, historical Catholic and Protestant officials focused witch-trial activity in confessional battlegrounds during the Reformation and Counter-Reformation to attract the loyalty of undecided Christians,” write the study’s authors, Peter T. Leeson, an economist at George Mason University, and Jacob W. Russ, an economist at Bloom Intelligence, a big-data analysis firm. When it comes to winning people to your side, after all, there’s no better method than stoking fears about an outside threat—and then assuring them that you, and you alone, offer the best protection.

This concept goes a long way toward explaining not just why witch-hunting mania exploded in Europe, but also why it took hold where it did. Namely, in Germany.

“Neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire”

Until the 1500s, the Catholic Church had claimed a monopoly on religion. Secure in its dominance, the Church employed a basic competitive strategy against the occasional challenger: it labeled proponents of other religions “heretics” and either forced their conversion or simply killed them. The Church’s two main tactics in this coercive strategy were inquisitions and crusades. 

With the German monk Martin Luther, however, that strategy stopped working.

THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART/GIFT OF FELIX M. WARBURG, 1920
Martin Luther engraving made by Lucas Cranach the Elder in 1520.

By nailing his Ninety-five Theses to the door of his local Catholic Church in 1517, Luther was acting as an early consumer protection bureau of sorts, blasting the Catholic church for exploitative practices. The promise of superior religious service sparked the Protestant Reformation, with Swiss theologians Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin piling on, adding to the movement’s momentum.

Per usual, the Pope declared Luther a heretic and banned the Ninety-five Theses. It turned out, though, that the Catholic Church’s coercive strategy—which worked well in Spain, Portugal

READ MORE HERE:  https://qz.com/1183992/why-europe-was-overrun-by-witch-hunts-in-early-modern-history/

What Are They Doing!? By the Silver Sage

Hello my Arising Soul Family!

Peep this video of what they’re doing here where I live in Germany!

I hope you are well and happy.

PEACE to you and yours, the

Silver Sage of NewFound-Life.com 🕉🌞✌🏽

10 Terrifying Haunted Castles in Ireland | Rue Morgue

By: MADDI MCGILLVRAY

When one thinks about Ireland they often picture lush green hills, rolling cliffs, and maybe a pint of Guinness or two. But just like any place with a rich history, Ireland has its fair share of hauntings.

With St. Patrick’s Day right around the corner, why not celebrate early by taking a tour through Ireland’s most haunted castles.

1. Leap Castle – Offaly
Considered as one of the most haunted castles in the world, thousands of tourists flock to Leap Castle each year in the hopes that they will run into its former occupants. The castle is said to be haunted by a number of spectres, the most terrifying being a small hunchback creature with a nauseating stench of sulphur and decomposing c

READ MORE HERE:

https://rue-morgue.com/10-terrifying-haunted-castles-in-ireland/

Not Into Halloween? Here are 13 Rituals to Celebrate Samhain | Gaia

By: Gaia Staff

Samhain is a time-honored tradition followed by witches, Wiccans, ancient druids and countless other modern pagans across the world, celebrated as October turns to November. Samhain is a festival of the Dead, meaning “Summer’s End,” and though you’re probably tempted to pronounce it “sam-hane,” it’s actually pronounced saah-win or saah-ween.

What is a Samhain Celebration?

Tradition holds that Samhain is a celebration of the end of the harvest and the start of the coldest half of the year, and with this transition it’s also celebrated as the beginning of the spiritual new year for practitioners, which is also why it’s nicknamed “The Witches’ New Year.”

How to Celebrate Samhain

Samhain is typically celebrated by preparing a dinner to celebrate the harvest. The holiday is meant to be shared with those who have passed on as well as those still with us. Set a place at the table for those in the spiritual plane, providing an offering for them upon every serving throughout the meal. In addition to those who have passed, invite friends and family to enjoy the feast with you. Typical beverages include mulled wine, cider, and mead, and are to be shared with the Dead throughout the meal.

Despite occurring at similar times and containing similar themes, Samhain and Halloween actually are not the same holiday. Halloween, short for All Hallow’s Eve, is celebrated on and around

READ MORE HERE:

https://www.gaia.com/article/modern-paganism-13-rituals-celebrate-samhain

The Witching Crossroads by The Silver Sage Witch of NewFound-Life.com

My special video is less than 6 minutes long  🙂

Making the Magick of the Witch stronger by grounding her/himself in Nature is the theme of this episode today!

The beautiful scenery is of the area surrounding my home here in Germany and also other areas that I’ve visited in this gorgeous country, plus a special furry surprise awaits you in this video.

♥♥♥You can book your detailed Tarot Card Reading, or an Angel Card Reading with me to help you plan your future.

+++I’m also available for protection rituals as well as other types of rituals you need. Let me know what you need, and I will help achieve your desires and goals, and also help you tame your fears….now that it’s Autumn, it’s definitely the right time to clean out the old and bring in the new!

Here is my email address: igo4more@web.de

Please support me by subscribing to my YouTube channel.

https://www.charmingmagick.com/store-1/

https://newfound-life.com/ (please follow my BLOG)

https://www.instagram.com/newfound.life/

Leave me a message here or private to let me know what you think about my new series…..Thanks in advance. I look forward to meeting with you again next Thursday. Bright Magickal Blessings, from, The Silver Sage Witch of NewFound-Life.com Thank you, my Spiritual Support Group! I am truly grateful!

Information and Correspondents in Witchcraft — Herb – Cloves by Vaya

Herb – Cloves

Planet: Sun, Jupiter

Element: Fire

Magical Properties

– In Japan and China cloves are used as an important material in incense, and in some European countries they can be found during Christmas and Yule in a holiday decoration called a Pomander.

– Cloves are often used to banish and ward against hostile or negative forces. In an extension, they are handy with shielding against psychic attacks and unwelcome magic. They can be used to drive off unwanted spirits and entities, or do things as mundane as stopping gossip.

– Due to the above property, cloves are also used for protection and cleansing. They can be

READ MORE HERE:

The day we went MAD foraging for mushrooms in Latvia – BY BUDGETTRAVELLER

barabika-mushroom

‘What are you doing today?’

Nothing.

Let’s go mushroom picking.’

Our guide for the day, Latvian blogger Zane Enina ofMugursoma.lv fame tells me that this is a pretty common conversation amongst Latvians during Autumn.

I wonder immediately if they are enough mushrooms for every Latvian to go mushroom picking.

‘50% of Latvia is covered by forests. There are always enough mushrooms for everyone. Plus a whole lot of space to get lost in and escape reality.’

We’re rolling through an open road about 100 kms outside of Riga. We’re surrounded by dense forests and an immense blanket of silence. We’ve been driving for almost 20 minutes from Zane’s house in Vangazi and there’s been nothing but green forests and deep blue skies.

roaming-wild-free-latvia

I’m pretty excited about the idea of foraging for food. It has been one of those skills I’ve been always curious to learn more about. My father grew up in a rural part of India where nature’s bounty was rich. The garden of the house he grew up in was more like a jungle. You could find everything here from the freshest (hottest) green chillies

READ MORE HERE:

https://budgettraveller.org/foraging-for-wild-mushrooms-in-latvia/

The Witching Crossroads by The Silver Sage Witch

I’m not in my Witchcraft room today because I thought it would be nice to sit by the fireplace on this lovely, cloudy day with a cup of tea and my Familiar named Pumpkin, and get a little more comfy as we do the video today. I hope you’ll get something nice to drink, settle in and enjoy. Btw, I dropped my tea (grimace…eye-roll)!

♥♥♥Book an appointment with me for your detailed Tarot Card Reading, or an Angel Card Reading.

+++I’m also available for protection rituals as well as other types of rituals & spells you require. Let me know what you need, and I’ll help you achieve your desires and goals, as well as help you to tame any fears that may be keeping your vibes low.

Here is my email address: igo4more@web.de Please support me by subscribing to my YouTube channel.

Bright Magickal Blessings to you and yours,

The Silver Sage Witch

Angel Advice AND Tarot Advice + a SPECIAL Oracle Card pull for the week of Monday, 7 Oct 2019

Hey hey everyone!!  Your Angel and Tarot Advice for the week of Monday, 7 Oct. 2019 is here.  You definitely won’t want to miss this one!

It’s time to get up, get out there, and get it moving!!

Enjoy this Magickal time, as you are being supported by the unseen.

Have a productive and positive week!

The Silver Sage Witch of NewFound-Life.com